The great fire off london
What caused the great fire of london
The Royal Exchange caught fire in the late afternoon, and was a smoking shell within a few hours. Paul's, falling heavy masonry broke through into its crypt, where booksellers had stored huge stocks of books, and all were burned. Order in the streets broke down as rumours arose of suspicious foreigners setting fires. Three courtiers were put in charge of each post, with authority from Charles himself to order demolitions. New public buildings were created on their predecessors' sites; perhaps the most famous is St Paul's Cathedral and its smaller cousins, Christopher Wren's 50 new churches. Evelyn believed that he saw as many as ", people of all ranks and stations dispersed, and lying along their heaps of what they could save" in the fields towards Islington and Highgate. Sparks would fly up and set fire to whatever they landed on. A hot summer had left London parched, its timber and plaster buildings like well-dried kindling. He recorded in his diary that the eastern gale had turned it into a conflagration.
The resulting conflagration cut off the firefighters from the immediate water supply from the river and set alight the water wheels under London Bridge which pumped water to the Cornhill water tower; the direct access to the river and the supply of piped water failed together.
Despite several radical proposals, London was reconstructed on essentially the same street plan used before the fire.
How many people died in the great fire of london
Lord Mayor Sir Thomas Bloodworth was not certain what to do. The river front was important in the development of the Great Fire. The family was trapped upstairs but managed to climb from an upstairs window to the house next door, except for a maidservant who was too frightened to try, who became the first victim. The old, tender children and many sick and helpless persons were all burned in their beds and served as fuel for the flames. During the first couple of days, few people had any notion of fleeing the burning City altogether. On that evidence, the strength of his own conviction that he had done it, Hubert was found guilty and sentenced to death. Many of those who lost their homes and livelihood to the fire built temporary shacks on the ruins of their former homes and shops until this was prohibited. Hundreds of thousands of people were left homeless. The last major fire was in , destroying 42 buildings at the northern end of London Bridge and 80 on Thames Street, but there were smaller fires all the time. Pyle claimed that there had been a huge fight between 60, Presbyterians and the militia, which had resulted in the death and imprisonment of 30, rebels. Sparks would fly up and set fire to whatever they landed on.
This historic royal palace was completely consumed, burning all night. The conflagration was much larger now: "the whole City in dreadful flames near the water-side; all the houses from the Bridge, all Thames-street, and upwards towards Cheapside, down to the Three Cranes, were now consumed".
In the immediate aftermath of the fire, a poor demented French watchmaker called Lucky Hubert, confessed to starting the fire deliberately: justice was swift and he was rapidly hanged. In principle, water was available from a system of elm pipes which supplied 30, houses via a high water tower at Cornhillfilled from the river at high tide, and also via a reservoir of Hertfordshire spring water in Islington.
The Royal Exchange caught fire in the late afternoon, and was a smoking shell within a few hours. Wattle-and-daub was a common building material: research by fire brigades showed that well-made new wattle-and-daub is strongly fire-resistant, but old neglected wattle-and-daub with patches of daub flaked off exposing patches of wattle that readily caught fire.
The hope was that by doing this they would create a space to stop the fire spreading from house to house.
The great fire of london story
There was an outbreak of general panic on Wednesday night in the encampments at Parliament Hill , Moorfields, and Islington. Likewise, the parish records of St Boltoph Bishopsgate show that the mean age at the time of death rose by an astonishing 12 years, from James set up command posts round the perimeter of the fire, press-ganging into teams of well-paid and well-fed firemen any men of the lower classes found in the streets. Cambridge: Harvard. The City was then, as now, the commercial heart of the capital, and was the largest market and busiest port in England, dominated by the trading and manufacturing classes. The houses of the bankers in Lombard Street began to burn on Monday afternoon, prompting a rush to get their stacks of gold coins, so crucial to the wealth of the city and nation, to safety before they melted away. The resulting strong inward winds did not tend to put the fire out, as might be thought;  instead, they supplied fresh oxygen to the flames, and the turbulence created by the uprush made the wind veer erratically both north and south of the main easterly direction of the gale which was still blowing. Eighty-nine parish churches, the Guildhall, numerous other public buildings, jails, markets and fifty-seven halls were now just burnt-out shells. Pepys himself buried his expensive cheese and wine, and carted his other belongings off to Bethnal Green. The fire's spread to the north reached the financial heart of the City. Order in the streets broke down as rumours arose of suspicious foreigners setting fires. But the people still wanted someone to blame, so they settled on the Catholics. Even under normal circumstances, the mix of carts, wagons, and pedestrians in the undersized alleys was subject to frequent traffic jams and gridlock.
Before the flames were out, a Dutch baker was dragged from his bakery while an angry mob tore it apart. With the complexities of ownership unresolved, none of the grand Baroque schemes could be realised for a City of piazzas and avenues; there was nobody to negotiate with, and no means of calculating how much compensation should be paid.
The fire hazard was well perceived when the top jetties all but met across the narrow alleys; "as it does facilitate a conflagration, so does it also hinder the remedy", wrote one observer  —but "the covetousness of the citizens and connivancy [corruption] of Magistrates" worked in favour of jetties.
How long did the great fire of london last
Panic began to spread through the city. The rebuilding of London after the Great Fire. During the day, the flames began to move eastward from the neighbourhood of Pudding Lane, straight against the prevailing east wind and towards Pepys's home on Seething Lane and the Tower of London with its gunpowder stores. Temporary buildings were erected that were ill-equipped, disease spread easily, and many people died from this and the harsh winter that followed the fire. Some fled to the hills of Hampstead and Highgate, but Moorfields was the chief refuge of the houseless Londoners. Pyle claimed that there had been a huge fight between 60, Presbyterians and the militia, which had resulted in the death and imprisonment of 30, rebels. New public buildings were created on their predecessors' sites; perhaps the most famous is St Paul's Cathedral and its smaller cousins, Christopher Wren's 50 new churches. In the upper left-hand side the mythical phoenix suggests that London too would rise from the ashes. Sparks would fly up and set fire to whatever they landed on. Cases were heard and a verdict usually given within a day; without the Fire Court, lengthy legal wrangles would have seriously delayed the rebuilding which was so necessary if London was to recover. Did you know? This did not happen soon enough.
Within a few days of the fire, three different plans were presented to the king for the rebuilding of the city, by Christopher WrenJohn Evelynand Robert Hooke ; but none of these plans to regularize the streets was adopted, and in consequence the old lines were in almost every case retained.
New public buildings were created on their predecessors' sites; perhaps the most famous is St Paul's Cathedral and its smaller cousins, Christopher Wren's 50 new churches.
Paul's Cathedral a safe refuge, with its thick stone walls and natural firebreak in the form of a wide empty surrounding plaza.
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